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An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow. One rarely finds modern circuits that are entirely analog. These days analog circuitry may use digital or even microprocessor techniques to improve performance. In a series circuit, the same current passes through a series of components. Electronics is the science of how to control electric energy, energy in which the electrons have a fundamental role.
Electronics is the science of how to control electric energy, energy in which the electrons have a fundamental role. High tech is often viewed as high risk, but offering the opportunity for high profits. Like Big Science, high technology is an international phenomenon, spanning continents, epitomized by the worldwide communication of the Internet. Vacuum tubes (Thermionic valves) were one of the earliest electronic components. Until 1950 this field was called "radio technology" because its principal application was the design and theory of radio transmitters, receivers, and vacuum tubes.
In an integrated circuit or IC, the components and interconnections are formed on the same substrate, typically a semiconductor such as silicon or (less commonly) gallium arsenide.
Commonly, electronic devices contain circuitry consisting primarily or exclusively of active semiconductors supplemented with passive elements; such a circuit is described as an electronic circuit.
Analog circuitry is constructed from two fundamental building blocks: series and parallel circuits.